Which would you choose for dessert? Panna cotta. Valhrona chocolate cake. Ice cream. Or something else …

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Imagine you’re sitting in a popular Manhattan restaurant. The meal you’ve just finished was worth every calorie invested and every dollar spent because of culinary excellence and ingredient quality. Now it’s time for one more decision. Do you want dessert?

The dessert menu comes and three items catch your eye. Homemade ice cream – a couple of scoops made with heavy cream from grassfed cows. Panna cotta – an Italian creation made from cream, sugar, sometimes buttermilk and molded with gelatin for spectacular presentation. Valhrona chocolate cake – one of the world’s finest chocolates mixed with almond meal and wheat flour, sugars, butter, eggs, and finished with a dark chocolate glaze.

So which one would you go with?

There is always the option to skip dessert of course but when you’re having a meal out with a special person and the wine that you drank with dinner has gone ever so slightly to your head, and you love desserts, most folks just don’t skip this “best part of the meal”.

My choice is none of the above. I ask in my most polite professional manner if the restaurant can provide a fruit plate. And I’m not surprised when most of the time the response is we’re really sorry but we’re not able to do fruit plates.

Most restaurants in or out of Manhattan are not set up for fruit plates. Sometimes restaurants put a little fruit on a cheese plate, but that’s usually considered an appetizer. Fruit also appears in tarts or pies or ice cream flavors. But ripe seasonal fruit beautifully presented on a plate is not readily available in most restaurants. And I understand why.

Fresh fruit is perishable. Stone fruits and berries have a finite shelf life and bruise easily. Apples need to be under constant refrigeration and humidity once they are picked. Melons will keep okay for a while until you cut them open … To sum it up, most fruits, with the exception of citrus, grapes, bananas, or pears, are just not good keepers.

Now my preference for a fruit plate has nothing to do with the calories. Although the difference is dramatic. A piece of the Valhrona cake could run as high as 400 calories in an elite restaurant. Not too bad compared with say a slice of chocolate cake from the cheesecake factors at 1500 calories. But still a hit after good meal and a glass of wine. The panna cotta would be less intense and would run around 250 calories for a serving. And the ice cream depending on the size and number of scoops will clock in between 250 and 500 calories. That fruit plate above at most 120 calories.

The reason for the dramatic calorie difference is of course the water content. Count about 30% water for the cake, 65% water for the panna cotta, 60% for the ice cream, and almost 90% for fresh fruit.

And that’s exactly why I choose fruit. Love that refreshing wonderful slightly acidic water, especially after a restaurant meal. Cool, wet, refreshing, and sweetened with natural sugars. Guess you can figure out where that beautiful picture came from. And the fruit was as good as it looks. Down to the last raspberry.

🌱 Nectarine. Grapefruit. Peach. Blackberries. Raspberries.

📝 About 120 calories, 1 gram fat, 21 grams total sugars (includes 6 grams fiber, 7 grams sugars, 0 grams added sugars) and 1 gram protein. The rest is water weight. Not just any old tap water weight but naturally rich vitamin mineral infused water including potassium plus phytonutrients depending on the color of the fruit.

🚫 Fresh fruits are not considered allergens. However the other choices do require mention. Valhrona chocolate cake contains WHEAT, GLUTEN, TREE NUTS, EGGS. Ice cream and panna cotta contain MILK.

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Use lots and lots of olive oil for a good ratatouille.

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Every August I honor the bounty of the season by making ratatouille, but I never use a recipe. Now there are a gazillion recipes out there. Precisely 462,000 retrieved in less than 60 seconds as per a recent Google search. So it’s not because I can’t find a recipe.

Ratatouille is basically just a selection of summer vegetables slowly braised in olive oil. It’s a simple preparation. Nothing really complex. But that is not why I don’t follow a recipe. The real reason is because that’s how I was taught.

My first taste of ratatouille was at a restaurant kitchen in Aix-en-Province during a summer cooking class. The chef spoke only French with a very strong Provençal accent but my French was good enough to follow. He didn’t measure a thing, just cut up vegetables and herbs, and tossed them into the pot. All the while poured on more olive oil than my American eyes had ever imagined was possible. And his ratatouille was absolutely delicious. The freshest most pristine vegetables, basil probably picked that morning, olive oil, and salt. I have honored his approach ever since.

The ratatouille doesn’t taste exactly the same each time I make it, but it always taste good. So each August when the farmers markets are bursting with eggplants and tomatoes and zucchini and peppers and fresh basil, I go out sourcing.

What I do keep an eye on however is ratios. I want equal weight of the four major vegetables. In other words, 1 pound (500 grams) each of eggplant, zucchini, peppers, and tomato. I also pick up a bunch of basil, an onion, and sometimes some garlic. Then I add salt and olive oil to taste.*

For those of you who want a recipe, my recommendation is to check the New York Times Recipe box (link listed below under RECIPE COLLECTIONS). That recipe site has only 37 variations, any one of which will probably be delicious. These recipes have been tested and usually work. If you need a recipe you will need one that is reliable.

JUST USE LOTS OF OLIVE OIL. Now some of my zealous colleagues are still reluctant to encourage a liberal use of olive oil and current dietary guidelines still limit calories from fat to 35%. So my zealous colleagues will be upset with my recommendation.

However here’s how I see things. Over time as research nutritionists continue to study fats, here is what I think will probably happen. The print will get smaller and smaller on those limitations. One day they will just disappear altogether from both label and guidelines.  In the meantime, I go with full disclosure. Using a generous hand with the olive oil will get you somewhere between 65% to 70% calories from fat. So if the number concerns you, ratatouille is not a dish you will be able to enjoy.

But that is how the dish was meant to be.

Ratatouille was born in the lovely warm sunshine in the south of France and grew to maturity along the shores of the Mediterranean when folks ate what was available in season with no knowledge of guidelines or limitations other than those imposed by the growing season. Faced with too many vegetables and waste not being an option, the cook did what needed to be done to make the vegetables palatable and delicious.

🌱 INGREDIENTS COUNT

Source the freshest most recently harvested selection of eggplant, zucchini, peppers, tomatoes, and basil you can find at a nearby farmers market. Make ratatouille is August and September. Use a good olive oil sourced from a reliable provider and harvest dated from the prior year.

📝 NUTRIENTS COUNT

Each serving of say 2/3 cup will deliver 1 cup vegetables because the cooking process reduces moisture through evaporation, which concentrates flavors and provides good fibers. Yes there is lots of fat, but the fatty acid balance significantly favors healthy fats. As for salt, yes I do use a good amount. However vegetables are an excellent source of potassium especially tomatoes, eggplants, and zucchini, so the sodium:potassium ratio is very favorably balanced on the potassium side.

*For nerds like me, here are the ratios used to calculate nutrition numbers: a generous 1/2 teaspoon Kosher flake salt (1.6 grams) and 2 tablespoons olive oil (30 grams) for each pound (500 grams) vegetables.

NB: If you use table salt or coarse sea salt, cut the volume measure for salt by half.

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Do You Like Your Salads Well Dressed?

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Summer is the season for salads.

The northeast is hot and humid during July and August and the last thing anyone feels like doing is spending hours in a hot kitchen. We want cool and refreshing. And we want it now.

Local farmers markets provide a variety of fresh greens. After that, it depends on what is available, seasonal, and handy.

But whatever you decide to throw in, please don’t be stingy with the salad dressing. Salads don’t make it to my table unless they’re well dressed.

Pictured above is a salad I put together recently. Red leaf Boston lettuce, small tender inner leaves of an escarole, some avocado, a couple of hydroponic tomato, a scallion, one whole chopped cucumber, a hard cooked egg, some nice canned tonnino, some chickpeas, and one of my favorite Italian imports, Roman artichokes that still have their stems intact.

For the vinaigrette, I make my own with California cold pressed Arbequina olive oil, imported sherry or wine vinegar (7 – 8% acidity), and salt. And I used a very generous tablespoon of my artisan vinaigrette for each 100 grams (3 1/2 ounces) salad.

Wait a minute! You’re a dietitian aren’t you?  Isn’t your job to remind us not to use too much oil and to cut back on salt?

My more zealous colleagues do just that. Especially those who work in weight loss or food addiction. Other colleagues separate healthy fats from unhealthy fats but will still recommend restraint. But not me. So I’m the first to admit that what I’m about to say is controversial.

Because flavor reigns supreme at my table, I use LOTS of vinaigrette because my well dressed salads tastes better than a salad topped a skimpy amount of dressing or worse some of that fat free stuff.

Putting an irresistibly delicious salad on the table makes it easy for folks to eat more vegetables. And getting folks to eat more vegetables is what we want right?

Found a wonderful quote in my facsimile edition of The Original Picayune Creole Cookbook originally published in 1901. The book says it is an old Spanish proverb. Who knows? Whatever the source it’s makes good culinary sense.

To make a perfect salad there should be a miser for vinegar, a spendthrift for oil, a wise man for salt and a madcap to stir all these ingredients, and mix them well together.

So please unless you’re committed to a low fat diet or limited fats to promote weight loss, don’t worry about olive oil. The fats in olive oil are mostly unsaturated and have a favorable fatty acid ratio.

Salad greens and vegetables are rich in potassium, fibers, and phytonutrients. Plus carotenoids are better absorbed in the presence of fat. Add some protein to your well dressed salad as I did with a locator mix of tuna, egg, and chickpeas. Serve with crusty whole grain bread and voilá a complete meal.

We normally eat about 2 1/2 cups or so for a meal or roughly 500 calories per plate not counting bread.

📝 Nutrients do count so here are the numbers:

1 cup (115g) – 200 calories

16g total fat, 250mg sodium, 300 mg potassium, 6g total carbohydrate, 2g fibers, 0g added sugars, 10g protein.

68% calories from fat (FDA rounding rules applied)

 

 

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The Naked Berry.

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So why do I want my strawberries naked you may be asking when I could have sorbet or shortcake or even a strawberry tart?

Why you ask?  Because they taste sooooooooooooo good.

A seasonal local strawberry picked at peak ripeness is ephemeral and incredibly delicious.

So when strawberry season rolls around each year, I leave recipe round ups to others.

Just make my berries naked straight up to savor all by themselves.

 

Nature is a harsh master and sometimes here in the northeast, the berries aren’t quite sweet enough and I’ll serve them with a dollop of sour cream and a sprinkle of brown sugar. But when nature, weather, and timing line up, you can’t beat the taste of a naked local berry.

Our strawberry growing season is short. Sometimes I get greedy and buy more strawberries than we can eat. So these berries get macerated in brandy and maple syrup for safekeeping. Almost as delicious as straight up.

Strawberries are sold in the farmer’s market by volume and not by weight. How much each container of strawberries weighs depends on how many strawberries fit in each container. Strawberries range in size from SMALL (1/4 ounce / 7 grams) to EXTRA LARGE (1 ounce / 28 grams). The smaller the berry, the more that will fit in the container. That means you get a little extra weight when you buy a dry quart or a dry pint of small berries.

 

🌱 Ingredient Audit.

 

Earliglow Strawberries.  Those strawberries pictured above were grown on the North Fork of Long Island. They were picked, boxed, and sold within 24 hours to folks like me willing to go out of our way for local berries.

Strawberries imported from California or Florida are sold by the pound, but my local berries come in dry quarts or dry pints. Thanks to my scale I know the berries in the dry quart weighed about 680 grams / 1.5 pound. At $5.99 per box that costs me $4 per pound. California conventional berries are price competitive with these local berries but California organic cost more.

Earliglow strawberries are considered by some to be the best tasting berry around. New York State actually can grow another dozen or so varieties which is good because these excellent berries have a short lived season.

 

📝 Nutrient Analysis

One serving of Earliglow strawberries (140 grams or 12 berries):   45 CALORIES

0 gram fat, 0 mg sodium, 11 gram carb, 1 gram protein (91% water)

We already know eating more fruits every day is healthy and a really good habit to get into. Lots of good nutrients and not so many calories. So you may be asking why bother running the numbers? Read on and you will find out why.

You could almost say naked berries have no calories. Naked strawberries as noted above certainly don’t have a lot of calories. Why is this? Because strawberries like most other fruit are mostly water.

Just think of fruit as the best vitamin water. Fruits have vitamins as well as fibers, minerals, and phyto-nutrients. All this good stuff gets infused in naturally sweetened water and is ready to savor in its own edible package.

Strawberries macerated in brandy with maple syrup doubles the number of calories to 90 calories. Naked berries with sour cream and brown sugar raises it even more to 110 calories.

Now for the answer as to why I need to run the numbers. Because I want to compare my naked strawberries to more ambitious plates. And you will see, the more complex the recipe, the greater the calorie increase.

We need two things. First a couple of good recipes for real desserts that use strawberries. That part is actually not too hard. It’s the second part that can be a challenge. These recipes also need a reasonable reliable nutrient analysis. Up until recently, I would have needed to run those numbers myself. But thanks to the marvels of modern data analysis tools, almost every recipe circulating the internet today comes with a nutrient analysis.

My favorite source for great classics recipes is The New York Times Recipe Box. It’s an amazing site and an amazing collection of well written recipes from some of the best food writers our country has produced over the last 50 years. And now each one comes with an analysis.

When I went looking for what was listed under strawberries and pulled up 260 recipes for strawberries, even I was surprised at how many recipes I found. From sorbets to soups and tarts to shortcakes, anything and everything you could ever think of doing with strawberries has made its way to the collection.

Everyone loves a real dessert on the table when we are in celebration mode, but my preference is always naked berries for daily fare.

And now for the numbers. Here’s how my naked berries ranging from 45 calories to 110 calories per serving compare with a couple of real desserts culled from The New York Times Recipe Box:

• Strawberry sorbet for 300 calories

• Strawberry tart for 350 calories

• Strawberry shortcake for 750 calories

Links to recipe collections / websites with nutrient analysis in sidebar

 

 

 

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Delicious, nutritious, sustainable mussels.

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Never tried mussels before but I’m always game for new things. They look delicious.

Adventurous eaters like you deserve a gold star. So go for it. And trust me, mussels are delicious no matter how you serve them.

A good place to start would be with a mussels and pasta dish for supper this evening. Proportions are for two people. Not hard either once you get the hang of it. Here is what you will need to get started:

• 1 kg (2 pounds) farm raised mussels, rinsed and sorted

• 100 ml (1/2 cup) white wine or dry vermouth

• 40 grams (3 tablespoons) olive oil

• 70 grams (2 1/2 ounces) linguine, measured dry ** See Carbohydrates below

• couple cloves smashed garlic

• handful chopped parsley

As you read through the instructions, keep in mind the method requires multi-tasking. Rinse mussels and check each one, removing any that do not close when tapped. Add dry vermouth or white wine to 3 liter pot, pour in mussels, raise heat to high, cover, and steam mussels until they open. Discard any that do not open. As mussels begin to open, remove the meat from the shell being careful to catch every drop of cooking liquid, a delicious combination of “mussel liquor” and wine. Discard shells.

Meanwhile, start pasta water to boil. Add olive oil to a sauté pan and gentle sweat crushed garlic. Add chopped parsley. Set aside until mussels are cooked and shells discarded. Then add mussels along with the cooking liquid to the olive oil mixture. Add salt to boiling water and cook pasta al dente. Combine with mussels, olive oil, garlic herb mixture, and serve.

Taste always comes first. That’s the delicious part and it’s easy to like these tender little mussels sweet like the sea, steamed in wine, steeped in olive oil, garlic, fresh herbs, and served over linguine.

Some of us are adventurous eaters and some of us just want good taste. And that’s okay. Next step for folks like you is to go out, get yourself some very fresh recently harvested mussels, start cooking up a storm, and have fun.

 

Wait a minute! What about nutritious and sustainable?

 

Curious eaters like you deserve transparency and full disclosure. You expect more from the plate and have the patience to dig a little deeper. An ingredient audit, nutrient analysis, and allergen alert provided below.

 

🌱 Ingredient Audit

Mussels – Mussels grow wild in shallow waters along the east coast from Long Island to Newfoundland and are sustainably farmed in Canada.

The mussels I used for the recipe were farm raised from Prince Edward Island. The mussel seed is collected from the wild, not hatcheries, and mussels are harvested from collector ropes suspended in the ocean. Mussels feed on natural food particles, which are present in the water column and do not require feed. They get all their nourishment naturally, from the pristine ocean waters that surround them while they grow.

My preference is farmed from an environmental perspective and from a convenience perspective. Farmed mussels aren’t muddy or covered in silt and usually don’t have “beards” those pesky little hairy outgrowths found frequently on wild mussels.

Linguine – Refined durum wheat slow dried bronze cut imported from Italy.

Olive Oil – Extra virgin olive oil from California. Harvest date October – November 2015.

Dry Vermouth – Good quality imported from France. White wine is a good substitute.

 

📝 Nutrient Analysis

Per serving (1/2 recipe about 1 cup):   520 CALORIES

25g fat, 470mg sodium, 35g carb, 28g protein.

Job one when running numbers is to be as accurate as possible.

The challenge for this dish is the mussels. There is good data on both raw mussels and steamed mussels in my database, but none to tell me the ratio of raw in shell mussels to steamed mussels on the plate. Further investigation reveals the problem. The amount of “mussel liquor” another name for the seawater trapped inside the mussel shell, is too variable for weight based calculation.

So I ran the numbers with steamed mussels using my rule of thumb 20% cooked yield for mussels as purchased in shell. However, if I were doing this calculation for a restaurant menu label, I would recommend laboratory analysis to capture the addition sodium in that trapped seawater.

Calories – the metric of choice for portion sizing.

Restaurant portions of course are large and 1000 calories or more per plate is routine. More relevant is to browse through recipes developed for home cooks so I examined about a dozen from various online sites. Results reflect a range from 470 to 1200 with most clustered between 600 to 800 calories per serving. Putting my recipe into context, a 520 calorie portion size is moderate.

Fats – Olive oil, considered a healthy fat, is the primary source, but a smaller fraction come from the mussels. Like all seafood, mussels are a source of omega 3 fatty acids (1 mg per 100 grams cooked).

Salt – The respectable level of 470mg sodium per serving is probably an under-estimate because as noted above the “mussel liquor” is not included in the calculation.

Mussels also bring minerals like manganese, selenium, iodine, iron, phosphorus, zinc, magnesium, copper, potassium. Sodium is just part of the total mineral package.

** Carbohydrates – My recipe calls for a small serving of linguine. The usual amount found in most recipes is 2 ounces (56 grams) per person. However many classic recipes specify larger amounts, probably because up until recently the standard rule of thumb for recipe from Italy was 100 grams (3 ½ ounces) per serving.

Refined grain has the fiber removed. The linguine is deliciously chewy when cooked al dente, but had I used whole wheat linguine, the fiber count would have been significantly higher.

Protein – Mussels are an excellent source of protein (24 grams per 100 grams steamed). Smaller fraction of plant protein from the linguine.

 

🚫 Allergen Alert

Fish • Shellfish • Wheat • Gluten

 

 

 

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Recipes, Ratios, and Green Split Pea Soup.

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For the longest time I never wrote down proportions for my green pea soup. The soup never came out the same way twice but always tasted really good. Now the way I see it, variability is part of culinary creativity so having my soup just a little different every time just meant it was hand crafted and artisanal.

I still don’t use recipes very often, especially when I’m putting together a meal for supper. You don’t need to either and here’s how:

Start with a mirepoix of onion, carrot, and celery, roughly 2 parts chopped onion to 1 part each chopped celery and carrot. It’s okay to use your eye here.  An onion or two, a carrot, a couple stalks of celery for each pound bag of green split peas should do it.

Now pull out the soup pot, pour in a generous amount of olive oil, add the onions, and let them sweat. As the onions start to caramelize, add the carrot and celery.  While the veggies are sweating, wash the split peas. Sometimes it takes a while for the veggies to release moisture, but when they’ve given up all they can, the mixture starts to sizzle. At that point, in go green split peas and 2-3 liters of water.  Throw in a thyme branch if you have one handy.

Let it all simmer very gently on the stove partially covered for an hour or until the peas have softened. Remove the thyme branch, pass soup through a food mill, adjust seasoning, salt to taste, and voilà a couple of liters of delicious green split pea soup.

But don’t get me wrong, I know the value of a standardized recipe and what they are good for: food service, nutrient analysis, ratios, and editors. So there is a time and place for a standardized recipe and here’s what mine looks like:

  • 500 grams of split peas (about 2 1/2 cups)
  • 200 grams onion (about 1 1/4 cup chopped)
  • 100 grams chopped carrot (about 3/4 cup chopped)
  • 100 grams chopped celery (about 1 cup diced)
  • 100 grams olive oil (about 7 tablespoons)
  • 3 liters water (about 12 cups)
  • 10 grams salt (1 generous tablespoon flake salt or 1/2 tablespoon table or sea salt

If I run the numbers using proportions listed above in compliance with the Nutrition Facts protocol for a serving I get a label that looks like this:

Nutrients per serving (1 cup / 245g):  240 calories, 10 g fat, 29 g carbohydrate (11 g fiber), 10 g protein, 400 mg sodium.

Serving sizes are determined by the FDA and required for health or nutrient contentment claims. The RCAA (Reference Amount Customarily Consumed) for soup is one cup and so that’s the amount I used to run the numbers. I needed to adjust the water because during the cooking process some water is absorbed by the split peas and some water is evaporated so the analysis is based on the cooked weight.

Green pea soup has an exceptionally good nutrient profile. Plant based protein. Good ratio fiber to carbohydrate for a healthy Microbiome. Good source potassium for a favorable sodium to potassium ratio.

 

 

 

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Will 2016 be the Year of the Kitchen Scale?

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2016 has been declared the Year of the Pulse. But will 2016 also be the year of the scale?

 

Fannie Farmer published the Boston Cooking School Cookbook over 100 years ago and Americans have practiced her sifting, spooning, and leveling technique ever since. But things may be changing. Consider this. A prominent New York blogger starting adding weights to her recipes back in 2010. And as each year passed since then, the buzz has gotten louder. More books and articles and food writers are including weight measures in their recipes, especially for home baking.

 

Most professional bakers and pastry chefs already use weight and most food service recipes are written with weigh measures. A recent check of  The New York Times recipe box, a collection of over 17,000 recipes, showed more and more recipes with weighted ingredients. Most of the rest of the cooking world already writes recipes by weight and I am wondering if 2016 could be the year the practice goes mainstream in this country.

 

My interest in the measurement protocol is personal. I have been developing my own recipes with grams and liters ever since I lived in France. So I am thrilled to find a growing number of cooks and bakers out there who are coming around to my side of the table.  I am also thinking now is the time to start sharing my expertise.  Weight based cooking is not hard.  It just requires a change in habits and how we go about doing things.  But if the thought of using a scale sounds foreign to you, here is a step by step guide on how to use a kitchen scale to make my healthier, cheaper, better rolled oat and walnuts cookies.

 

ROLLED OAT, WALNUT, AND APPLESAUCE COOKIES

Ingredients for about 25 cookies:

 

100 grams unsalted butter (7 tablespoons)

100 grams turbinado sugar (1/2 cup)

100 grams canned unsweetened applesauce *  (scant 7 tablespoons)

2 large eggs

2 teaspoon vanilla extract **

100 grams walnut (1 cup chopped)

100 grams white whole wheat flour (generous 3/4 cup fluffed, spooned, and leveled)

100 gram rolled oats (1 cup)

100 gram raisins (scant 2/3 cup packed)

 

Besides the scale, you will also need one larger mixing bowl, a couple of smaller bowls, an electric mixer, and baking sheets. Remember to remove one 4 ounce stick of butter from frig or freezer a couple of hours before starting so the butter comes to room temperature.  Also remember to preheat oven to 350 degrees Fahrenheit at some point before starting to bake.

 

Turn on the scale. Place one small bowl on the scale, zero out, and weigh sugar. Place another small bowl on scale, zero out, and weigh applesauce*. Set both sugar and applesauce aside.

 

Place the larger mixing bowl on scale, zero out, and weigh the butter. Remove bowl from scale and cream butter using the electric mixer. Add sugar slowly to creamed butter and continue to mix until thoroughly blended.  Then add applesauce, eggs, vanilla, and just a dash of salt (optional). Mix thoroughly and set aside.

 

Place smaller bowl on scale. Weight walnuts and remove. Chop walnuts and set aside. Return bowl to scale and weigh flour, rolled oats, and raisins, zeroing out after each addition.  Add the dry ingredients from the smaller bowl plus the walnuts to wet ingredients, folding in gently with a spatula.

 

Line baking sheets with parchment paper or use silicon liners. Form the raw dough into little balls about the size of a rounded tablespoon and arrange these rounds on the baking sheet leaving about 1 inch (2.5 cm) distance between each one. Flatten each cookie before baking. Place cookies in oven and bake until cookies start to darken, about 17 minutes.  Cool on rack. Store in air tight container.  Or freeze for long term storage.

 

Cooking Notes:

 

* Applesauce comes in individual 4 ounce / 113 ml serving sizes. Using these little cups means you don’t have to buy a whole big jar for a small amount. Each individual cup contains just a little more than 100 grams applesauce.  The extra amount is not going to ruin the recipe, but for those of you who are nerds like me, just remove about a tablespoon.

 

** I use imitation vanilla for cooking.  The delicate flavor profile of real vanilla does not survive the high heat of the baking process, so I bake with artificial vanilla and save real vanilla for smoothies and ice cream.

 

Nutrition Notes:

 

Deciding to bake my own cookies was an easy decision. They are better, healthier, and cheaper than the competition.  My cookies are better because I can control the sweetness and if you’re like me and do not like your cookies too sweet, you can adjust any recipe to just enough.  My cookies are healthier because I source really good quality ingredients like whole grains, whole nuts, and seasonally dried fruit.  And my cookies are cheaper. Each pound costs me a little over $6.00.  And those are New York City dollars.  Prestigious artisan cookies say from a farmers market or pricy bakery boutique cost as much as $20 per pound here in the Big Apple. And even more, sometimes a lot more.

 

Yes my cookies are healthier, I can’t label my cookies “healthy” because they do not meet the nutrient profile required by the FDA for a healthy nutrient content claim. And maybe that’s just as well.  An indulgence is an indulgence. They are certainly not junk, but aren’t all cookies an indulgence?

 

Allergen Alert: Wheat, Gluten, Tree nuts, Eggs

 

Nutrients per one cookie serving: 120 Calories, 2 grams Protein, 14 grams Carbohydrates, 7 grams Fat, 1 gram Dietary Fiber.

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Happy New Year’s Eve 2015

 

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This year has gone amazingly quickly. And the one night we have to celebrate letting go of the old and bringing in the new is almost here.

Looking back on 2015, it’s been a good year for nutrition. The now infamous Dietary Guidelines will probably get released despite all the turmoil and challenges and bickering. As for me, I like the guidelines so I’m happy to see them released

Menu calorie labeling got postponed for a year and the date rescheduled for December 2016. Calculated nutrient analysis requires skill and patience and a standardized recipe. Fast casual seems to have already implemented as have many of the restaurant chains  My preference is for online counts with a tool like Nutritionix that allows for individual modification on demand. How it plays out for grocery take out and for the written menu calorie posting remains to be seen.

One exciting event happened at the beginning of the year. I call it the KIND bar kerfuffle because the FDA sent a letter to the meal bar manufacturer stating, among other things, that the bars could not be labeled healthy because nuts have too much fat.

The word healthy is regulated by the FDA as a nutrient content claim. Nuts by themselves of course contain good health fats and the USDA want use to include them frequently in out diets. When a manufacturer takes those same nuts, adds in some dried fruit, sweets, and maybe a little chocolate, the product now falls under FDA jurisdiction and subject to regulatory control. The criteria for “healthy” was established over 20 years ago with the best of intentions and reflect what was then considered to be good dietary advice. Nutrition science has moved on but the kiss of death criteria remained cast in regulatory concrete.

KIND removed the word healthy and filed a citizens petition asking the FDA to consider updating their regulations. I say it’s about time!

As you can see, it’s been an eventful year for nutrition. And 2016 looks to be just as eventful.

But for now let’s just enjoy ourselves on New Years Eve and not get crazy. Enjoy the food. Enjoy the people. And enjoy the spectacle of your choosing be it noisy Times Square bash or a quite night with the television.

 

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Homemade artisan vinaigrette.

 

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Why do I bother making vinaigrette?

Because I really like good olive oil. And no one makes a bottled dressing made with olive oil!

I used to cheat and buy the bottled stuff and believe me I bought the most expensive stuff on the shelf. I looked for front of the package labeling and when I found one with olive oil, that’s the one I picked.

Then one day I turned the bottle around and read the ingredient list. The first thing I noticed was the olive oil was not listed first.  What I found was canola oil or soybean oil. Those are not bad oils, but they are NOT olive oil. And where was olive oil listed? Much further down on the list.

Ingredients must be listed in descending order by weight. For those of you who are not label mavens, it’s okay to market a product and label it olive oil on the front of the label as long as olive oil is listed somewhere in the ingredient list.

That was the day I started making my own homemade artisan vinaigrette.

Now take a look at my vinaigrette pictured above. The ingredient list is short and simple. Olive oil, vinegar, salt.

I should add my cost for ingredients is about three times what I would pay for even the most expensive brand of bottled dressing because good olive oil is not cheap.  This cost factor explains why most people are okay with a blend.

My oil of choice is Arbequina olive oil from California. Olive oil is shelf stable, but unlike wine, olive oil doesn’t benefit from aging. Every November after the harvest, I order 6 liters so my vinaigrette is always made with an oil that is less than 12 months old. I use a good vinegar (7% acidity) and salt.

Most recipes I see for vinaigrette are volume based. My preference is weight based and I use my scale. No measuring cups to wash. No waste. And that’s good because at the price I pay for my olive oil, I can’t afford to waste a drop. Both volume and weight are referenced below however because most of you probably do not have a scale yet.

275 grams extra virgin olive oil like Arbequina (300 ml or 1 1/4 cup plus 1 teaspoon)

100 grams Sherry or wine vinegar (100 ml or 7 tablespoons)

5.8 grams salt (2 level teaspoons)

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My problem with salt.

 

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Everyone loves salt. Chefs love salt. Cooks love salt. I love salt.  Even some of my zealous colleagues love salt as long as you don’t use too much.

But I am not going to discuss the usual list of salt problems. Why? Because this post is about salt, which is a molecule, and not about sodium, which is one of the elements that makes up the salt molecule.

When health professionals address “salt” problems, they are talking about sodium problems.  Don’t get me wrong. These sodium problems are important and include health risks, conflicting expert research, and medical costs.  But my problem with salt has nothing to do with sodium or health risks. My problem with salt is that it is hard to measure

Pictured above is my beam balance jeweler’s scale with the required 5.8 grams salt needed for a batch of my own artisan vinaigrette. I make up a batch every 10 days or so and I weigh the salt every time because it’s the only way to get an accurate measure.

The measurement issue really hit me earlier this year when I listened to a talented chef tell some colleagues how bad he had messed up. But let me start this story at the beginning.

I was doing data collection work for a Manhattan restaurant.  One of the perks of working with restaurant folks is you get to schmooze a little with chefs.  Now I know chefs love salt and I’ve watched them through handfuls on foods as they cooked.  I also know chefs don’t always like to measure stuff.  Most chefs don’t even want to talk to an RDN about salt, but since I was there to do some work, the atmosphere was relaxed and salt did come up in the conversation.

“You know just the other evening I was cooking at a friend’s house and I put in way too much salt … like I’m the professional and I lost so much  credibility … talk about embarrassing … I don’t know what happened but wow was it a disaster … ”  Those words got everyone’s attention. When the chef de cuisine said he messed up, everyone listens. Now this chef is so good at what he does no one believed him when he said he messed up.  No one that is except me and I had a pretty good idea why he messed up.

The salt he used in the restaurant was different from the salt his friend stocked in the pantry.  Mistakes like this one happen all the time.  Why?  Because depending on the grind, the type, and even the manufacturer, salt volumes can vary.  Not just a little either.  Salt volumes can very a lot!

Most really good cooks and probably all chefs do what I usually do which is salt to taste.  That is what Julia Child said. It’s right there in black and white in all her books.  As she put it “adjust seasoning.”

The technique works just fine as long as you use the same brand, the same type, the same grind, and you are cooking for the same people.  Salting to taste works great when all those variables are stable.  Maybe you use a little more than my zealous colleagues would like to see on a plate, but if you know what you’re doing and you know your customer, the amount you use will taste just fine.

So given how variable salt volumes can be, what is the best method when you use a different grind, or change brands, or cook for a different customer, or a family member has a health problem?

Here is what I do.  I use my jeweler’s scale and I weigh salt.  Gram for gram, different grinds or types of salt can be substituted one for the other by weight.  Coarsely ground red sea salt or fine evenly ground table salt or translucent flakey kosher salt, no matter which you use, if you measure by weight you will get the same amount of saltiness. That is why I weigh salt for my vinaigrette. I want just the right amount every time.

Try to visualize how variable salt volumes can be with these different kinds of salt.  Oversized large grains of sea salt take up one size space.  Light flakes of fluffy salt take up another size space.  And evenly ground small grains of table salt take up yet another size space.

In other words, using a teaspoon of table salt instead of a teaspoon of flake salt means twice as much salt.  Yep, you read that one right.  Put another way, if a recipe calls for 1 teaspoon salt and the developer used flake salt but you use table salt, the result will be twice as salty.  And twice as much sodium.  Oooooops! Said I wasn’t going to mention sodium. Oh well …

Anyway, that is the reason why nerds like me get a scale for measuring salt.  A good digital jeweler’s scale costs over at least $100 or more.  I would love to have one, but even I can justify that price.  So what I use is a beam balance jeweler’s scale and this works just fine for the types and grinds that I need to measure.

These are guidelines I use when accurate measurement is required:

  1. If you salt to taste, always use the same grind and the same type.  And if you cook in someone else’s kitchen, be cautious.
  2. If you use spoons to measure salt, keep in mind that 1 teaspoon of the flake version like diamond kosher salt weighs 3 grams (1/10 ounce) but 1 teaspoon table salt weighs 6 grams (1/5 ounce).  Sea salts and colored salts and exotic salts will vary but most will fall much closer to the table salt than the flake salt.
  3. When you try out a new recipe, always try to determine what type and grind the recipe developer was using.  Most recipes use table salt but not all.  And be cautious.  You can always add more salt.  Taking it out once you have added too much is virtually impossible.

 

 

 

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