Apple Clafouti

 

my apple clafouti
my apple clafouti

The aroma of baked apple, sweet custard, and cinnamon perfumes the air about forty minutes after this apple flan / clafouti goes into the oven. Easy to make, forgiving for beginning cooks, and appreciated by everyone. I have tried many varieties from the sourest green to the sweetest, mushiest red and have yet to find a variety that does not work.  Apples pictured here are red delicious, granny smith, golden delicious, and honey crisp – all organic.

Recently I went back to my original source, Francoise Bernard’s Les Recette Facile, and compared her version with mine. I have rationalized her metric measures, kept the basic ratio for milk and eggs, and significantly reduced the sugar. Probably because French sour cherries are really sour and American apples are sort of sweet.  English translations of her recipes were most recently published in 2010 and can be found at Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cuisine-Everyday-French-Home-Cooking/dp/0847835014

FOR 4 SERVINGS

300 grams apples, 2 medium cored, trimmed & sliced or about 2 generous 2 cups
50 grams flour, about. 7 tablespoons
50 grams sugar, 1/4 cup
3 eggs
300 ml milk, about 1 1/4 cup
15 grams butter, 1 tablespoon
pinch salt
1/2 teaspoon cinnamon (optional)

sugar & flour | photo by gourmet-metrics
sugar & flour | photo by gourmet-metrics

  USING THE SCALE

Pre-heat oven to 350ºF (180ºC).  Weigh out or measure sugar, flour, milk, and butter. Wash, quarter, remove seeds and cores from apples.  Slice in a food processor using the thin slicing blade.  Leaving the skins on adds flavor, fiber, and other good things, so whenever possible use organic apple.  Combine flour, milk, eggs, cinnamon, pinch of salt, and sugar to make a thin batter.  Place sliced apples in baking dish and push them down.  Pour  the batter over the sliced apples and distribute remaining butter on top.  Cover the dish and bake for about 50 minutes or until, an internal temperature 85° C / 185° F.  After about 40 minutes, the aroma of baked apple and sweet custard lets you know baking is almost done.  Serve hot, tepid, or cold.  Garnish with a sprinkle of fresh cinnamon.

Per  Serving: Calories 270, Fat 8g, Saturated Fat 4g, Sodium 115mg, Carbohydrate 42g, Fiber 4g, Sugars 29g, Protein 7g

Ratatouille

ratatouille — my tribute to Julia Child

Julia Child was our first celebrity chef.  She changed the way Americans think about food, encouraged us to eat better, and inspired us to cook more often.

She was not afraid of fat and in retrospect we can say she was slightly ahead of her time.  Ongoing research is chipping away at our fat fobic fears, the latest piece being a study published recently finding no connection between dairy fat or butter and subsequent cardiac death.  She would have liked that a lot.  And so do I.

She is reputed to have used unpleasant words like “nutrition terrorist” or “food nazi” when referring my fellow dieticians.  And in many ways, I am with her on that one too.

But I have to confess, her recipes never did it for me.  Loved her presence, loved her attitude, loved her influence on the American palate, but I did not like the way she wrote her recipes and, through I was given her two volume set as a wedding present, I have only used the books once.  By the time I got married, I had already lived in France and was committed to la cuisine française.  But we were hosting a Sunday brunch and among the dishes I prepared was her version of ratatouille, an eggplant casserole.  Julia warned that a really good ratatouille is not one of the quicker dishes to make because each vegetable was to be cooked separately.  She was right.  Her method probably does make a more elegant and refined dish.  But I confess, I do not have the patience, so the recipe that follows is my simplified adaptation.   I have also take the liberty to add back in metric measures she so meticulously replaced with cups as she was putting her book together.

INGREDIENTS for 4 to 6 people

eggplant, 1 small, generous ½ pound or 250 grams

zucchini, 1 to 2, generous ½ pound or 250 grams

flake salt, about 1 ¾ teaspoons or 5 grams

extra virgin olive oil, 4 tablespoon / 60 ml

garlic clove, 2 each or 6 grams

yellow onion, medium, generous ½ pound or 250 grams

red or yellow peppers, 2 to 3, generous ½ pound or 250 grams

tomatoes, 1 pound or 450 grams

METHOD

Wash all vegetables.   Remove stem from eggplant and cut in pieces.     Julia’ version says to peel the eggplant, but I would rather leave the skin on because it adds good color.  Slice off the ends of the zucchini and cut in rounds.  Julia wants us to salt the vegetables and let them stand for about 30 minutes to render their water.  I tend to skip this step.  Peel and slice onion.  Peel, seed, and chop the tomatoes. Remove stem and core from peppers and chop in pieces.  Peel and crush garlic.

Julia lays out an elaborate sequence for cooking each vegetable separately.  This method, however, will work and to my taste is somewhere between almost and just as good.  Soften onions in 2 tablespoons olive oil and gently cook them until they turn translucent, begin to caramelize, and turn light brown.  Add the tomatoes and gently simmer for several minutes.  Then add eggplant, zucchini rounds, peppers, crushed garlic, salt, pepper, and remaining olive oil.  Cook covered to encourage the vegetables to sweat out the water, then remove the cover so that excess liquid can evaporate.  Keep heat medium to low to avoid scorching.  Simmer until vegetables have softened and excess water has been reduced, but the vegetables retain their shape and texture.  In a pinch, pour off excess liquid, reduce in another pan, and add back to vegetables.  Serve hot as a vegetable accompaniment; serve cold as an appetizer.

METRICS

Proportions noted above will make about 4 cups cooked vegetables.  Served as a hot vegetable to accompany the protein of your choice or as a cold appetizer garnished with chopped parsley, recipe makes 6 servings 130 calories each.  Served as a main course with a slice or two of ham and some crusty bread, recipe makes 4 servings 200 calories each

Recipe inspired from Julia’s Eggplant Casserole — with tomatoes, onions, peppers, and zucchini.  Volume I of Mastering the Art of French Cooking, Julia Child, Louisette Bertholle, Simone Beck, published by Alfred A Knopf, New York, 1967

Per Serving for 6 people: Calories 130, Fat 10g, Saturated Fat 1.5g, Sodium 330mg, Carbohydrate 12g, Fiber4g, Protein 2g.
Per Serving for 4 people: Calories 200, Fat 15g, Saturated Fat 2.0g, Sodium 500mg, Carbohydrate 18g, Fiber5g, Protein 3g.

Classic Risotto

The good, the bad, and the ugly.

Good risotto requires three essentials – time, patience, and a healthy dose of respect for ingredients.  The last risotto I made was at Thanksgiving.  My brother in law, an aspiring amateur, volunteered me.  He had crafted a non-conventional spread, got caught up in other preparations, and asked me to give him a hand.  All the right stuff was assembled and my job became the time and the patience part.    Once you get the hang of making risotto, you really do not need a recipe because much of the work is coaxing the rice into absorbing just the right amount of broth then stirring in some more cheese and butter.

The process is straightforward.   Melt about half the butter in a pan, stir the rice into the melted butter, let it sizzle softly, start adding broth little by little until at the end the broth is absorbed and the rice is cooked just al dente.  Incorporate the rest of the butter and cheese.  Serve immediately.

When one of the essentials is missing, you get a bad risotto.  Not enough time.  Not enough patience.   Or insufficient respect for the integrity of the ingredients.  My first risotto was not all that good, but with practice you get the feel of it and with each repetition, the risotto gets better.

Classic proportions for four people as listed in my favorite Italian recipe source, Le Ricette Regionali Italiane: Quarta Edizione 1976, are as follows:  400 grams rice, 100 grams butter, 1 ½ liters stock, 80 grams parmigiano.  Optional ingredients:  medium onion, olive oil, white wine, saffron, salt, and pepper.   Translated into common American measure:

2 cups short grain rice, measured dry

               7 tablespoons unsalted butter

               6 cups chicken or beef stock

               1 cup grated parmigiano

Now, you may be asking, what has to be done to a sumptuous, sinfully delicious dish like risotto to make an ugly risotto?  Let me explain.

Way back in 1997, as New York City restaurants were expanding their portion sizes and Americans were expanding their waistlines, four nutrition professionals and an intrepid food writer at The New York Times conducted a calorie counting experiment.  The original article is still available at the Times website “Losing Count of Calories as the Plate Fills Up” and that is where I found it recently.

The purpose of that article was to highlight expanding portion sizes in restaurants.  The signature dish was a risotto, which laboratory analysis determined contained 1280 calories and 110 grams of fat.

Under the most benign conditions, risotto is certainly not what you would call a light dish.  Just check out the nutrition numbers below for a classic portion.  Good risotto needs the right amount of butter and cheese to make it decadently delicious.

So I said to myself, what would you have to do to classic proportions to get 1280 calories and 110 grams of fat?  Classic proportions by weight are consistent no matter which source you choose, so establishing a ratio is relatively easy.  Ratios work by weight, so bear with me and we will walk through the weights together.

The ratio of rice to butter for the classic version is 4 to 1.  In other words, four parts rice to one part butter plus the handful of cheese.  In metric units, that is 400 grams rice to 100 grams butter.  Or in common measure about 2 cups rice to 7 tablespoons butter.

It actually took me a while to retrofit the ratio to yield 1280 calories and 110 grams of fat.  When I finally succeed, there was a lot more fat and a lot less rice.  The calories from fat go from 44% for the classic risotto to 77% for this risotto.  Starting with the same 400 grams / 2 cups rice, the butter needs to be increased to 600 grams.  That is 43 tablespoons or 1 ⅓ pounds.  Plus that handful of cheese.  And who knows what kind of fat the restaurant used?  Fresh unsalted butter?  Margarine?  Fats of unknown origin?

So how did it taste?  To my great disappointment, not one of the nutrition professionals or even the intrepid food writer commented on how this risotto tasted so we will never know.  What we do know, however, is that whatever this risotto was, it was not classic.  I love butter.  And I love cheese.  But too much of a good thing can get ugly and that is why I decided to call this risotto ugly.   So back it goes filed under nutrition in the archives of the New York Times.  I plan to stay with a small portion of my decadently delicious and very good classic risotto.

 

One Portion Classic Risotto,  about 1 ½ cups (364g):  Calories 530, Fat 26g, Saturated Fat 16g, Sodium 370mg, Carbohydrate 59g, Fiber 2g, Protein 13g.
One Portion Ugly Risotto, about 2 ½  cups (640g):  Calories 1280, Fat 110g, Saturated Fat 70g, Sodium 350mg, Carbohydrate 55g, Fiber 2g, Protein 12g.

Camembert Cheese and Apples

We all love cheese.  But it is the French who have mastered the art of serving cheese and setting it within the structure of a meal.  Try serving cheese accompanied with fruit after the meal instead of a dessert.  Most people do not complain and for those who do, just serve a “real” dessert too.  If you have never tried, you may find cheese is more satisfying at the end of a meal than something sweet and syrupy.  Cheese is fun to experiment with.  Most people quickly determine which types they like and which types they can do without.  Each cheese has its own unique character and its own finite shelf life.  A hard cheese like parmiggiano or aged cheddar will keep months as long as it is stored correctly.  A fresh cheese like goat should be eaten relatively quickly.  A camembert will keep a while.  The delicate aromas and textures of cheese are enhanced when served at room temperature, so remove cheese from the refrigerator at least 30 minutes before serving.  Pictured below is the local Hudson Valley Camember cheese (5.6 ounces/156g) I picked up at my Greenmarket. Hudson Valley Camembert & ThinCrisps

one camembert cheese       6-8 ounces (150g-250g)

cost $7.00 – $10.00

calories depends on size

serves 6 to 10

140 calories per serving

 Green Apples Fall

Pictured here on the left are the green Pepin apples I also picked up at the Greenmarket.   Thin crispbreads, water thins, or a good baguette are a must.  Crispbreads or water thins are my preference because they provide a surface for tasting and savoring cheese but are less calorie dense than bread.  A plain wooden board makes the best serving plate.  The best garnish is an attractive cheese knife.

RECIPE

camembert cheese, count 1 ounce (25g-30g) per person

box of crispbreads

crisp fall apples, count 1/2 apple per person

METRICS

Cheese is a good source of calcium and protein, but is also high in butterfat and for sodium for some people.  See nutrition information for fat content.  So here is the question — can we eat our cheese and be healthy too?  Guess the answer to this one has got to be it depends …

A serving of cheese on my plate is about an ounce or 25 to 30 grams.  Small is beautiful!

Comparing my cheese plate to the calories in an equivalent dessert say a piece of cheesecake, the camembert does well.  A classic restaurant style cheesecake will run about 550 calories, considerable more than my camembert plate.  More extravagant cheesecakes go up exponentially up from there to 1000 calories or more.  As for salt, comparing my camembert to an equivalent weight of American process cheese, the camembert has less sodium.

Liz Thorpe has written a wonderful book chronicling how local cheese makers across our country have reinvented European traditions for American consumption.  Check out The Cheese Chronicles:  A Journey through the Making and Selling of Cheese in American, from Field to Farm to Table, 2009.

 

Per Serving of cheese,crispbread, and apple (103 g):  Calories 140, Fat 7g, Saturated Fat 4g, Trans Fat 0g, Cholesterol 20mg, Sodium 290mg, Carbohydrate 14g, Fiber 1g, Protein 6g.

 

 

Clams & Linguine

Fresh, local, and in season depends on where you live and what is accessible.  During the summer, I have easy access to clams because my local greenmarket is on the south shore of Long Island and offers a constant supply of fresh, local fish and shellfish.  All last summer I cooked flounder, bluefish, porgies, tuna, even a swordfish caught off Montauk Point.  And all last year I kept looking at those delicate Long Island little neck clams.  I never bought them because I’m just not used to clams.  Love to eat them and never cooked them.  So this year I decided to do it.  How else can you keep on learning if you don’t try new things?  I pulled out my best reference sources, put together a starting structure, and am ready to share the results.  Steaming little neck clams open is easy once you get the hang of it.  I used a 3 liter pot (actually the bottom of my steamer) as you can see in the picture below.  White wine or dry vermouth can be substituted for all or part of the water needed to steam the clams.  100 grams linguine gripped firmly in the hand measures about ¾ inches or 2 cm in diameter.  You will also need a medium sized sauté pan and a 2 liter saucepan to cook the pasta.  Proportions listed below are for 2 modest servings.

Linguine and Clam Sauce

makes 2 cups

cost $11

serves 2

440 calories per serving

RECIPE

2 dozen little neck clams (about 900g measured raw in shell), scrubbed and de-sanded as required

1 cup water (¼ liter) for steaming

4 robust cloves fresh garlic (25g), peeled and smashed

2 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil (30ml)

⅛ teaspoon crushed red pepper flakes

½ teaspoon oregano

3 ½ ounces dry linguine (100g), made with 100% hard durum wheat or semolina flour

½ cup chopped parsley (15g)

Assemble all ingredients before starting.

Bring water to boil in the bottom of a large pot.  When the water is boiling, add the clams.  As the clams open, remove each one carefully to a bowl retaining every drop of the flavorful liquid.   Steaming the clams open takes about 5 minutes.  As soon as the shells are cool, remove clams from shells.  Keep clams in a small bowl and strain the remaining liquid to remove any remaining sand or grit.  Put aside keeping clams and juice separate.  As the clams are steaming, add olive oil to the sauté pan and slowly soften garlic over low heat.  Add crushed red pepper and oregano to garlic oil, letting the mixture steep for about five minutes.  Add reserved clam juice, increase heat, and reduce volume to about half.  Keep sauce warm.

Cook linguine al dente in salted water.  Remove with a pasta fork and transfer to the sauté pan.  Retain cooking water.  Stir in clams and parsley.  If more liquid is required, add some from the pasta cooking water.  Serve immediately.

METRICS

Clams are a significant source of protein as well as many essential vitamins and minerals.  Olive oil is a natural source of oleic acid.

Total fat exceeds “healthy” limits, but please remember to put this disclaimer in the context of the great fat debate.  Saturated fats are within “healthy” range.  Your may be asking where does the saturated fat come from?  It is the olive oil.  Rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, olive also contains a fraction (14%) saturated fatty acid so a couple tablespoons adds up.  Sodium is within the current standard of less than 480mg per serving and 140mg per 100 grams.   Now let’s step back a moment and consider carbohydrate metrics.    My favorite Italian recipe source, Le Reccette Regionali Italiane, lists 100 grams dry pasta per person.    My version reduces that amount by half to 50 grams per person.    My preference is less pasta and more clams.  But that’s the joy of cooking!  It is completely up to you.

References:  Le Riccette Regionali Italiane (La Cucina Italiana, Quart edizione: settembre 1976), Fish without a doubt, Rick Moonen (Houghton Mifflin Company 2008)

 

Pper Serving (255g):  440 Calories, Fat 17g, Saturated Fat  2.5g, Sodium  240mg, Carbohydrate  45g, Fiber 3g, Protein  25g.
Excellent  Source:  Protein, Vitamin A,  Vitamins B1,  B2, B3, B12, Vitamin C, Folate, Iron. 
Good Source: Vitamin B6, Vitamin E, Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, Zinc.  

Salad Dressing

Salads are quicker to make when the dressing is handy, so I have always had a bottle of one of the respectable brand names waiting and ready to go. Then one day about a year ago, I read the label. No extra virgin olive oil! I checked other labels and discovered that most of the bottled dressings had no olive oil. Even the most expensive, most prestigious brands! The best I could find was a mention of extra virgin in the list of ingredients along with other oils. So I started experimenting and ended up with this superb dressing. It is significantly more expensive to make and somewhat more cumbersome to use, but the exceptionally fine flavors and clean taste of the vinaigrette for me at least are worth any extra effort and cost.

makes 14 fluid ounces (400g)

cost $12 per carafe

yield 28 tablespoons

90 calories per tablespoon

RECIPE

300 ml (1 ¼ cup) moderately priced extra virgin olive oil

100 ml (6 tablespoons, 2 teaspoons) sherry vinegar, at least 6% acidity

2 teaspoons flake style salt (5.6g )

freshly ground black pepper to taste

Make the vinaigrette in a standard glass 2 cup (500ml) measuring cup.  Measure out ingredients in the order listed.  Using the metric side of the cup simplifies the process, but standard cup, tablespoon, teaspoon equivalents are also listed.  Beat the mixture into a state of emulsification using a wire whisk and pour vinaigrette into a 14 fluid ounce (420ml) storage carafe with a pouring spout.

Like some cooks and some dietitians I know, olive oil and vinegar need encouragement to share the same plate.  There are two options:  an emulsifier or brute force.  This vinaigrette has no emulsifier and therefore requires a lot of agitation.  It is easy to make, but can be cumbersome to use.  Once made, the carafe of vinaigrette should be stored in the refrigerator.  Olive oil gets cloudy and starts to congeal at that temperature.  Bring the vinaigrette to room temperature and shake vigorously before pouring.

METRICS

How much dressing you use depends on the size and composition of the salad and of course on your personal preference.   For a small salad appetizer, 1 tablespoon or ½ serving is usually enough for me.  Extra virgin olive oil gets very expensive really fast.  This carafe was made with a moderately priced oil $16.99 per 500ml.  Sometimes I use an even more moderately priced oil $11.99 per 500ml and the carafe only costs me about $9.  Going even cheaper, say $15.99 per liter (34 oz), the cost drops to under $7.  Expensive extra virgin olive oils start about $21.99 per 500ml and goes exponentially up from there.

Salad greens and intensely colored raw vegetables are loaded with carotenoids and other fat soluble phytonutrients.  Full fat salad dressings increase absorption rate so any oil based dressing is preferably to fat free dressings.  Extra virgin olive oil is a natural source of both monounsaturated fat and polyphenols.  Research on the antioxidant effects of dietary polyphenols has been promising and the FDA actually permits a qualified health claim for monounsaturated fat from olive oil and reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).

My vinaigrette has a good sodium profile.  The 2014 National Salt Reduction Initiative sodium target for salad dressing is 570mg per 100g and my homemade version has 560 mg per 100g.  For comparison sake, a commercial off the shelf brand can be as high as 1500mg per 100g or more ….

While the health arguments are comforting and provide rational justification, the real reason I continue to make my own comes down to it just tastes better!

 

Per Tablespoon (14g): Calories 90, Fat 10g, Saturated Fat  1.5g, Sodium  80mg, Carbohydrate  0g, Fiber  0g, Protein  0g.
A 2,000 calorie diet is used as the basis for general nutrition advice; however, individual calorie needs may vary.

Black Kale

As with so many of life’s important decisions, the choice of red, curly, or black kale comes down to your taste, your personal preference, and your pocketbook

Curly kale has broad based deep green leaves and a robust, pungent, fully developed favor.  It is cultivated all year long and is easy to pick up in most supermarket chains.  Some cooks blanch the leaves first, while others add a grated carrot to the pan to soften and sweeten the somewhat bitter taste.

makes about 2 cups (500ml)

cost $6.00 for black kale / $3.00 for curly kale

calories 320

serves 2

160 calories per serving

More exotic and expensive are red kale (pictured on the right) and black kale (pictured on the left).  A little milder and a little less pungent, these kales can be found in green markets starting in fall through early winter and in specialty supermarkets all year long. My favorite is cavolo nero or black kale.  Alternatively called dinosaur or laciniato kale, this blackish-green leafy kale is favored by the Tuscans who have developed a special affection for its distinctive taste and gnarled appearance.  Chicken stock enhances flavor and a splash of balsamic vinegar or lemon juice before serving sharpens the flavor.  Check to be sure that excess stock or water has been completely evaporated so the final dish does not weep.

An excellent choice of greens to accompany a ham, a rack of pork, or a roast beef, keep kale in mind as you plan for the upcoming holidays.  Each pound (½ kilo) kale as purchased yields 2 to 2½ cups cooked.

RECIPE

2 bunches (15 ounces/430g) curly, red, or black kale, washed, stemmed, and chopped into medium sized pieces

2 tablespoons (25g) extra virgin olive oil

3 cloves (10g) fresh garlic, peeled and crushed

1 – 2 cups (250ml – 500ml) low sodium chicken stock

¼ teaspoon (.7g) flake salt

Lemon juice or Balsamic vinegar

Warm oil in sauté pan and soften crushed garlic.  Add kale a handful or two at a time using medium heat and stirring as you add each handful.  Sauté the kale until the pieces start to wilt and the oil is evenly distributed, usually about 5 minutes.  Add the salt and start adding stock or water a half cup (100ml) at a time.  Keep adding the stock until the kale is softened.  Keep heat high enough to evaporate each addition of stock.  If more liquid is required, use water.  Braise the kale for another 20 minutes.   Reduce the heat when the kale is softened and all liquid is absorbed or evaporated.  Adjust seasonings and finish with some lemon juice or balsamic vinegar.  At this point, the kale will hold nicely for at least 30 minutes.  Check before serving to be sure that excess stock or water has been completely evaporated so the final dish does not weep.

Note:  Both piece size and cooking time effect the texture of the final product.  The smaller the pieces or the longer the cooking time, the softer and smoother the kale.  Start with medium sized pieces and about 20 minutes, then adjust according to taste.

METRICS

Kale is not cheap, but it is incredible healthy. MyPyramid classifies kale as a dark green vegetable and recommends 2 cups dark greens per week.   Whole Foods uses the ANDI (Aggregate Nutrient Density Index) to numerically rate foods and kale is on top with a score of 1000.  For those of you like me who love kale and are willing to pay the price, we get both flavor and nutrition with each bite.  The question I wrestle with is how to make this incredibly healthy vegetable appealing and acceptable to those of you who do not share my taste for slightly bitter greens.  I can’t guarantee success, but I know where to start.  A judicious amount of salt, a generous amount of fat, some acid, some culinary expertise, and a few discretionary dollars to invest in healthy greens.

Encouraging more people to eat and enjoy a healthy vegetable like kale is the best kind of healthy eating.  So I choose to focus more on the sourcing and cooking end and less on the limits to sodium and fat end.  To my simplistic mind, flexing a little on olive oil and salt makes good nutrition sense as long as more people eat more kale.

 

Per Serving (130g):  Calories 160, Fat 13g, Saturated Fat  2.0g, Sodium 240mg, Carbohydrate  8g, Fiber  2g, Protein  3g.  
A 2,000 calorie diet is used as the basis for general nutrition advice; however, individual calorie needs may vary.

Green Split Pea Soup

October is the month to pull out the soup pot.  Mine is made of bonded stainless steel, holds about 3 quarts (3 liters), and has been on the shelf since spring.  October days in New York are cool, crisp, and can be spectacularly beautiful.  Except when it rains.  And sometimes it rains a lot.  Either way makes good soup weather.  Bean based soups are easy to make but time consuming because beans require soaking time.  Quicker and just as satisfying are lentil and split pea soup.  Today it is going to be green split peas.  October is a good month for roots, bulbs, and tubers and no split pea soup would be complete without carrot, onion, and potato.  Some recipes call for ham hocks, pancetta, or bacon.  These are delicious, but my recipe works with just vegetables.  A freshly chopped garnish at the end, aromatics added during the cooking, and the right amount of salt are my flavoring agents of choice.   Yes, I use salt and I am going to tell you why.  But first the recipe.

THE RECIPE

1 pound (450g) dry split peas, rinsed, drained

2 small or 1 large yellow onion (250g) peeled, chopped

2 medium or 1 really big carrot (170g) peeled, chopped

1 potato (160g) scrubbed, quartered, eyes removed, skin intact

4 cups (1 liter) low sodium chicken stock, brick pack is fine

4 – 6 cups  (1 – 1 ½ liter) additional water

2 teaspoons Kosher style flake salt (7g)

Aromatics – thyme, oregano, garlic (optional)

Garnish – fresh scallion, fresh parsley, freshly ground black pepper

Put split peas into the soup pot, add potato, carrot, onion, stock, and water.  Bring to boil, partially cover, and gently simmer over low heat for about an hour or until the peas are completely soft.   Add salt and aromatics about half way through the cooking process.  Pass the soup through food mill.  Alternatively, blend using an immersion blender or an old fashioned stainless steel egg beater.  Add more water for a thinner soup and adjust seasoning.  Garnish with fresh cilantro, parsley, scallions, and black pepper.

THE METRICS

makes about 12 cups (3 liters)   ●   total cost $5.00   ●   $1.70 per liter

portioning information   ●   150 calories per cup   ●   230 calories per bowl 

On to salt now.   Nothing is new about salt being controversial.  What is different this time around is the substance of debate.  Salt the mineral is tangible, visible, tactile, and real.  Sodium the element is elusive, conceptual, and measureable only by calculation or laboratory analysis.   Leaving aside the legitimate debate over health consequences of too much sodium, the measurement logistics are challenging.      

When the 2010 Dietary Guidelines are finally released later on this year, sodium recommendations will probably be set lower than under previous guidelines.  New York City formed a partnership at the beginning of 2010, the National Salt Reduction Initiative (NSRI), to guide a voluntary reduction of sodium levels in packaged and restaurant food by 2014.   Meanwhile, the restaurant and food industries continue the search for culinary salvation – a sodium free substitute  for salt.

As a cook, I love salt.  Powerful, robust, an exceptionally effective flavor enhancer, salt does the job.  Because of its strength, salt easily overwhelms other more delicate flavors so I have always used a light hand and treated salt with respect. 

Salt added in the proportions noted above meets current Food and Drug Administration (FDA) criteria for low sodium and falls below the proposed 2014 target set by the NSRI guidelines for soup.  In fact the amount could be increased to just under 2 ¾ teaspoons flaked Kosher style salt and still meet both standards.  Serious cooks know that salting to taste is more a matter of personal preference than a function of software analysis.   Those of us who salt intuitively may need to be more attentive to tracking our use.  As sodium comes under increased scrutiny, our approach to measurement may benefit from analysis.  More to come on salt and sodium …

 

Nutrition Facts per 1 cup serving*  (240g):  Calories 140, Fat 0g, Saturated Fat  0g, Trans Fat  0g, Cholesterol  0mg, Sodium  230mg, Carbohydrate  24g, Fiber  8g, Protein  10g.  Vitamin A 40%, Vitamin C 10%, Calcium 2%, Iron 8%.  Excellent Source:  vitamin A as beta-carotene, fiber.  Good Source protein, thiamine, folate.
*Serving sizes are reference amounts defined and regulated by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration).  A 2,000 calorie diet is used as the basis for general nutrition advice; however, individual calorie needs may vary.